Today, “Rococo“ is the established term for an artistic style and taste, although in the 19th century, is stood derogatory for lewdness and excesses (which were facets of this epoch). It was the epoch of enjoyment of life, of refinement and of the floridness. And it was the epoch of early enlightenment with philosophers like Voltaire and Rousseu. Although occasionally there were immoral public amusements in great dimensions, there was more focus on privacy than during the baroque era. The incredibly detailed style of the rococo epoch began when the French King Louis XIV had died in 1715. Louis XV followed him on the throne. In both baroque and rococo, the fashion of France was leading the world. The rococo was ruled by ideals like elegance, sophistication and refinement. The fashion was not as dignified and stiff as the fashion of the precedent century but more coquettish, capricious and extravagant. Fabrics in use were linen (for underwear), silk, taffeta, atlas, damask, brocade, cotton and wool. Fur was used to line for instance cloaks of wealthy persons and to protect the hands from the winter cold in form of muffs. People just loved colours, giving them such delightful names as "Caca Dauphin" (the heir to the throne's p**, unsurprisingly a brownish shade), Feu d'Opéra (a red colour named after the blaze at the Opera house in Paris in 1781) and, one more because the names are so hilariously absurd, "Cardinal sur la paille (Cardinal in the straw). It requires no inconsiderable share of 1) domination of the fashionable world to set up such colours and 2) a zeitgeist that does not mind the explosive statement of a Queen naming a colour after a recent tragedy.
Dresses were decorated much, yet people wanted modest things such as comfortableness and pleasantness. This lead to the plain and comfortable-looking Robe volante, “the Flying Dress”, which had its origins in the negligee. It is a one-piece that falls down in lose pleats from the shoulders on front and back (sack back construction, ). The sack back pleats are also named Watteau pleats after the Rococo painter Jean-Antoine Watteau who often depicted dresses with such pleats. Nevertheless the body was forced into a tight corset. The Flying dress was rather high cut and worn beside the corset over a chemise and panniers (pocket hoops). This fashion was first worn by the middle class, then increasingly favoured by the noblewomen.
The skirt was at first cone shaped but broadened with the time until it looked like a huge rectangle (by square hoops). It was certainly not comfortable and nothing for houses with narrow doors though which the ladies would have to pass sideways.
The tight sleeves reached approx. to the elbow. There, great flounces of fine lace or delicate embroidered fabric called Engageants, were added.
Once the Robe volante had become popular in the ladies court wardrobe, the gown underwent several changes. It got a second name, the Robe à la Francaise, “the dress in the manner of the French“ it would be translated. The waist was more and more emphasized (and laced in the back hidden under the pleats) and the cut changed (the sack back construction remained).
It consisted now of three pieces:
the Manteau or Mantua (the mantle), the Jube (the skirt) and a triangle-shaped stomacher, often richly decorated. The Manteau and the Jube were usually of the same fabric and lavishly decorated with quillings, lace, bows, silk and fabric flowers, scalloped and pleated stripes, etc.. The neckline, usually very low, was decorated with lace or embroidery. At first, bows were only used to decorate the neckline but with time passing it became fashionable to adorn the whole stomacher with bows. Madame de Pompadour was obviously very fond of this fashion as she wears it in several paintings from the 1750s.
The lengthy morning toilette and many layers of clothing:
If you feel like being cooked in the sun with so many underskirts, don't wear them. Just limit the number to the "decency
skirt" and the visible Jube.
In England, the Robe à la Francaise was advanced: A new type of dress became stylish – a gown without hoop-skirt (Englishwomen wore paddings at the utmost) and stomacher. It was not a Manteau and a stomacher pinned together with needles but a tight bodice (without the tuckings in the back) fastened with hooks and eyes or lacing in the front. The end of the bodice was pointed at the front and the back. There was normally no stomacher anymore. This gown was also worn on the continent since 1770 and pushed aside the Robe à la Francaise as the most popular dress: the Robe à l'Anglaise.
In France, another fashionable development took place: The Robe à la Polonaise. This gown is a variant of the Robe à l´Anglaise. The name refers to the fact, that the clothes of Polish peasant women had served as inspiration, who tucked up their skirts to protect the hems while working on the fields. The Robe à la Polonaise was very similar to the Robe à l'Anglaise, with the difference that the skirt was artfully tucked up. This was done at one or more places with ribbons that were fastened inside the dress at the waist and at a position of the skirt (being shorter than this measurement when the skirt is falling loose) so the skirt at the fixed place is drawn up. With different length of ribbon, the gather could be varied. Sometimes, the gather was done on the outer side of the skirt, so that the ribbon was visible.
The Robe à l'Anglaise and the Robe à la Polonaise were usually made
*of monochromatic/uni fabric or
*the skirt and the gown had different colours (sometimes one was patterned and the other not) or
*the whole gown was made of the same flowered, dotted or striped fabric.
For daily live beyond the courtly occasions, a light kerchief called Fichu was worn around the neck (usually white) and inserted into the neckline. There were greater draperies that swelled and pretended a greater bust size than there actually was.
For travel and for horseback riding, a petticoat was worn with a (hooded) jacket. Petticoat and jacket were sometimes quilted. The jacket was stiffened with bones, pointed in the front and straight at the waist in the back. The coat tails are usually 20 to 30cm long (approximately 8 to 12 inches).
A popular kind of informal dress (worn inside the house, among the family) is a wrapping gown. The wrapping gown is worn with
corset and chemise underneath. Like modern wrapping dresses it is open in the front and wrapped around the waist. The fabric is softly coloured, light and flowing, the skirt is long and full.
Although for private environment, many women had themselves painted in a wrapping gown.
Exotic cultures, especially the Orient, were very popular in France. This fascination for the way of life of Sultans and Sultanas was heated-up by Madame de Pompadour who had herself painted à la turque. The colourful and flowing clothes (so different from the stiff French court fashion), ornated belts, wide sleeves, pearl jewellery, coffee, turbans, baggy silk trousers - everything was all the rage. Records of ambassadors and travellers in the Orient delighted and enchanted the people.
Another informal garment is a pet-en-l'air jacket. This jacket has a sack back construction and was worn over a petticoat or the Jube. It looks just like a Robe à la Francaise with shortened skirt. It could be fastened with hooks and eyes (the stomacher is divided lengthwise), tied with ribbon or pinned to a corset with decorative lacing. The materials are the same as for the gowns. There is a painting in Upton House, 1740s, unknown artist, which depicts an unknown (but undoubtedly rich) Lady is clad in a blue pet-en-l'air probably made of silk and trimmed (or perhaps fully lined) with ermine fur.
The Caraco was another type of jacket, fashionable in the 1760s. It is similar to the pet-en-l'air (which can be seen in my
painting on the right hand side) but has no sack back. The back is tight-fitting like the one of a Robe à l'Anglaise.
A garment inspired by Rousseau's philisophy was the Gaulle or Chemise à la Reine (the Queen's chemise). Tired of the pompous and uncomfortable fashion at court the French Queen Marie Antoinette introduced this trend in the 1780s. She was craving for a simple and free lifestyle like (the glorified) country-life. The Chemise à la Reine consisted of several layers of light muslin. Commonly, the colour was white or a pastel shade. The Chemise was relatively tight until the waist, there it was girded with a (colourful and/or embroidered) sash or a broad ribbon and then a wide skirt flowed loosely around the legs. Sleeves can reach just over the elbows or to the wrists and can have small flounces where they end. Likewise the round neckline is usually trimmed with one or two layers of flounces.
Marie Antoinette was portrayed in the Gaulle by Elisabeth Vigée-Lebrun and it arose an outcry: she had begun to fight for more self-reliance and power and this portrait showed her as an individual without any traces of her being a queen. Like she had made Petit Trianon in its rustic landscape her most beloved residence, Marie Antoinette adopted a simpler and more comfortable style of dress. That was considered to be an insult of the glorious monarchy. On the other hand, the people thought Marie Antoinette had been painted in her underdress without a proper gown and were shocked.
In the 17th century the folding fan came up. In the following time, fans reached a high degree of artistry. The parchment or silk was decorated with floral patterns, garden scenes or sceneries from the ancient Greek and Roman mythology.
In the Rococo era, wealthy women liked to own small dogs. These lapdogs were not (like in Renaissance) there to provide some warmth but to be a cute little companion who could be cuddled and spoilt. Madame de Pompadour had several dogs, her two favourites named Mimi and Inés, which also appear in her portraits. She quite doted on them and one year, she spent over 500 Louis-d'Or (an immense fortune for average people!) on golden collars for her pets.
In the Rococo era, shoes with heels and (very) pointed toes were worn. There was yet no difference in the making of a right and left shoe, the heel and soles were carved of wood and overall their feet must have hurt like hell at the end of a long day...
For fashionable ladies (and gentlemen) it was significant that the fabric of the garment and of the shoes matched, so that they had usually an exclusive pair for each garment. The Louis-heel, a heel that is wider at the top and base that in the middle, was the height of chic in the rococo era and is famous ever since. The footwear had straps that needed to be crossed over the instep and fastened with a buckle.
Contrary to common belief, people bathed regularly when they could be sure the water was clean. In Versailles and in several
other residences, bath rooms can be found with a large basin to be filled with water and sometimes with a gallery above from which the court could watch the noble family. The body was also rubbed
with perfumed towels and people did brush their teeth in a way. Unfortunately, toothpaste was for a short time made with sugar as the main ingredient which did not produce the wanted
Members of the court especially changed their linen underwear very frequently and although their ideas of hygiene were not quite equal to ours today, they were not as rank and heavily perfumed as is the general stereotype.
Quite like during the Elizabethan age, a mixture including white lead made the skin look pale. Rouge was often applied in abundance (for modern norms) to the cheeks. This was considered fashionable but for instance Georgiana Spencer-Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire, and her daughter wore none. By making them appear natural and artless, this met good critics.
At the beginning of the Rococo epoch the hair was worn relatively close to the head in updo hairstyles, outside the house covered and not yet powdered or accreted by hair pieces as one was proud of the own (healthy and shiny) hair. In the late 1760s and 70s the coiffures became increasingly high, the hair was draped over wire frames, powdered and false hair and much adornment (everything from false flowers to bows and miniature paintings to pearls and feathers) was added.
In 1774, Marie Antoinette stunned the French court with her "pouf" (Engl. cushion/pillow) hairstyle which is somewhat the ancestor of the beehive hairstyle of the 20th century.There was very opulent decoration for the pouf: when the French warship “La belle poule” (“the beautiful hen”) emerged victorious in 1778 against the British, the Queen of France invented the fashion trend of decorating her hair with a model of the ship which was of course imitated by noblewomen at once.
In the 1770s Georgiana Spencer-Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire, astonished the fashion world with a 90cm (1yd) high hair tower adorned with jewels and e.g artificial fruit and birds. Consequently, riding in a carriage was only possible by sitting on the floor – very comfortable indeed! Another trend-set of hers was adding a huge ostrich-feather to her (high) coiffure that luffed at every motion of the head. One of her feathers was about 1,20m (1,3yd) in lentgh – a very extravagant fashion and very much to the poor ostriches regret.
Already in the end of the 1770s, however, the mounted-up coiffures became lower and were displaced by what looked like a mob of curly hair (what it actually was) with curls hanging on shoulders and back. This new height of chic was worn with wide-brimmed hats. Paintings of Georgiana Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire show her with that hairstyle and the film adaption of her life (“The Duchess”) flatters with quite accurate hairstyles and dresses. To the Chemise a la Reine (introduced in the 1780s) Marie Antoinette wore her hair curly with a big straw hat adorned with a light-blue ribbon and bow and ostrich-feathers. The high hairdos and the mob lasting until the 1790s disappeared and only left low coiffures, small curls and and braids behind.
As high-quality lace was as valuable as gemstones, it was also used as jewellery – worn as a quilling around the neck. Ribbons, colourful or (more trendy) black were also worn around the neck. Yet around the neck means around the neck: not rather loose like a necklace but like a choker! Pearl-necklaces and pearls earrings were in vogue, just as well as diamond jewellery in form of collars, earrings and bracelets. Another way to wear bracelets was to wear matching ones on both wrists.
All in all, only a minimum of gemstone/diamond jewellery was worn around the neck – generally, the lace quill is adornment enough (with perhaps a small pearl-necklace). It was very popular to wear miniatures (portraits or the profile as relief) on necklaces and ribbons around the neck, on a pearl or ribbon bracelet (looks like a watch) and as a brooch attached to the bodice. Likewise, cameos were fashionable.
- Please note that this list claims no completeness and does not operate as advertisement. It was merely composed for informative purposes. Furthermore, no valuation of the patterns is implied or intended -
Keywords: epoch, Madame de Pompadour, Jeanne
Poisson, Marie, Antoinette, dress, robe, gown, engageants, robe à la polonaise, robe à l'anglaise, robe à la francaise, pet-en-l'air-jacket, floral, hoop-skirt, paniers, Manteau, Jube, stomacher,
wig, powder, mouche, fabric, Lamballe, volante, cul de Paris, à l'Anglaise,a l´Anglaise,riding,caraco, Francois Boucher, orient, Sultana, France, gaulle,chemise à la reine, Trianon, Louis-heel,
coiffures, accessories, shoes, belle poule, Duchess of Devonshire, Gorgiana, pouf, mob, miniatures, pattern, fabric, silk, taffeta, cotton, fashion, Epochs of fashion, Rococo
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